© 1999- 2011 moiretomas
HISTORY of KINETIC FINE ART
As a graduate student from Highlands University in Las Vegas, New Mexico, and majoring in Media Arts and Computer Science, I often wonder why so few people know of kinetic painting. What is it? They often say, or what is kinetic? By now everyone has at least seen, even if they don't know it, a kinetic sculpture. Usually it is in front of an important building and is driven by a motor, or it is wind driven, or it gives the impression of movement due to the shape and or reflective properties of the materials used in the art form. This is the presently accepted form of Kinetic Art by the private business sectors, the government, and the general public. The Kinetic Art that this article is focused on is kinetic painting. Kinetic painting seems to be the neglected step-child of Kinetic Art. This article will explan the complicated progression of Kinetic Art by first changing the name to Kinetic Fine Art. Kinetic Fine Art doesn't replace the term Kinetic Art. It merely shifts the focus onto kinetic painting.
The three technological advances that directly relate to Kinetic Art are within the realms of machine, light and computer. These realms of technology also constitute the three categories in Kinetic Fine Art: Machine Aesthetic, Light Aesthetic, and Computer Aesthetic. These terms do not replace machine art, light art, or computer art, or even kinetic art, but are a necessary elevation of terms in order to give a concise explanation of Kinetic Fine Art, and to focus on the essential kinetic painting.
The first major category that evolved came from the Industrial Revolution and it is the machine. Keep in mind that the development of Kinetic Fine Art was not linear. I explain it in linear terms for the sake of order and simplicity. Let us also keep in mind that each category of development of Kinetic Fine Art had an incubation period before it actually became recognized as an art movement. Machine Aesthetic had its most recent incubation period with the constructivist. In the words of my former Design Foundation instructor, Ulrich Niemeyer who is an artist and considers himself a constructivist, "Constructionism is a post-cubist movement which deals in part with sculpture by way of the machine originated aesthetic. In other words, the sculptures are not carved or modeled. They are constructed from wood, metal, paper, glass, or modern industrial materials such as steel, aluminum, or plastic, and then assembled." It is through the experiments of the constructivist that Machine Aesthetic was born. With that in mind let us start with "the Germans during the Industrial Revolution" (Popper, Origins and Development of Kinetic Art 95) who "adopted the term 'kinetic arts' for the arts of gesture." In this atmosphere of arts of gesture and expanding mechanical technology within the German culture, the Bauhaus was formed. Mainly thought of as an Art Design Institution, Bauhaus had many fine art artists as well. One of these artists had a major impact on the United States, "Lazlo Moholy Nagy, an instructor at the Bauhaus, established an American branch years later, in Chicago (Popper, Art of the Electronic Age11)."
But the constructivists were not only in Germany. They were in many European countries and in the United States as well. Pevsner, Marcel Duchamp, Thomas Wilfred, Alexander Calder and several others were also very active. "It was in 1920 that the word 'kinetic' was first used in connection with the plastic arts" (Popper, Origins and Development of Kinetic Art 95). There were many artists from many different places that were developing Machine Aesthetic.
Machine Aesthetic had an even earlier incubation period than the constructivists' experiments. The hydro-clock during the time of Ancient Greece is an ancient start of this incubation period. Also, during the middle Ages elaborate clocks were developed with a sequence of events unfolding. "In the seventeenth century we see the development of a new phenomenon, the human or animal automation which imitates lifelike appearances" (Popper, Origins and Development of Kinetic Art 122). So, although Kinetic Fine Art has been around for many years, it is in 1920 that most scholars agree that Kinetic Fine Art was born as a movement in the arts. It was Machine Aesthetic as the focus of this movement
The second major technology to evolve and influence Kinetic Fine Art is the evolving technology of light. As machine technology was in full bloom, light technology was being born. In 1905, Thomas Wilfred began to explore kinetic painting. "His components were no more than a cigar-box, a small incandescent lamp and a few pieces of colored glass" (Popper, Origins and Development of Kinetic Art 161). Later in 1919, Thomas Wilfred developed, the Clavilux , a color organ that was not only Machine Aesthetic, but Light Aesthetic as well.
Moholy Nagy's light machine, or Lichtrequisit, is a prime example of Light Aesthetic in the incubation period, which occurred in the same time period (1923-30) as Thomas Wilfred's Clavilux. Popper explains that this machine was a moving sculpture made of polished metal, which reflected light (Origins and Development of Kinetic Art125). Reflected light is one of the many different ways to express the Light Aesthetic. But it wasn't until 1956 that Light Aesthetic as a recognized movement in Kinetic Fine Art began overtaking Machine Aesthetic. At this point Kinetic Fine Art became well known.
The color organ began the incubation period for Light Aesthetic. Father Louis Betrand Castel, a Jesuit philosopher, is credited for inventing the first color organ in 1734 (Roukes107). "Father Castel was working towards a new art of light...Bainbridge Bishop developed a color organ in 1880 that projected lights onto a screen...Frederick Kastner developed a gas organ called the "Pyrophone" in 1869-73" (Popper, Origins and Development of Kinetic Art 156-157). The intricacies, in Kinetic Fine Art, are almost impossible to follow. The art form called light art is another source of confusion in Kinetic Fine Art. In order to be a Kinetic Fine Art the art form must have some type of motion. Early neon light art forms had no motion implied, virtual or actual. An art-form such as light art with no actual motion, or articulated motion by the artist is not Kinetic Fine Art.
The South American Gyula Kosice introduced the Light Art there. Popper points out that by 1910 George Claude invented the vapor-tube filled with neon gas... In the 1930's a few artists used neon tubes for decorative purposes (Art of the Electronic Age 17). "Credit for the earliest attempt to use neon light as a principal material of sculpture is usually given to Gyula Kosice, who produced his Luminous Structures in Buenos Aires in 1946" (Popper, Art of the Electronic Age 17). Gyula Kosice was a great experimenter with different art forms. He was also a kinetic artist. But, his Luminous Structures have no implied, virtual, or actual motion.
In 1955, the experiments of scientist and artist Frank Malina heralded a remarkable renewal in the art of moving light (Popper, Origins and Development of Kinetic Art 165).
Art of the Electronic Age
The computer is the third major advance in technology within our modern times to influence Kinetic Fine Art. Computer art is often thought of as static digital images on a computer screen. For example, a digital image created in Photoshop is thought to be computer art. This is another reason to elevate the term to Computer Aesthetic when in reference to Kinetic Fine Art. The Computer Aesthetic as a movement in Kinetic Fine Art began in an attempt to control the light effects in Light Aesthetic. As Light Aesthetic continued to grow, it developed through many forms of Kinetic Fine Art: reflected light, laser light, holography, and interactive environments. It was a natural form of progression to employ mathematical programming to control the effect, which gave birth to cybernetic art. "The word is derived from the ancient Greek 'kybernetike' meaning, roughly, 'steersmanship'" (Malina, Kinetic Art: Theory and Practice176). It is a term used in reference to control. An early form of control over the effects of light was through electronics. Before the microchip there was electronics. This use of cybernetics is the actual beginning of Computer Aesthetic. Some examples of this period of transformation are Jean-Pierre Yvarol "Interference", Nicholas Schoffer " Cybernetic Light Tower ", Piotr Kowalski's " Field of Interaction , and Nam June Paik's Video Synthesizer . Nam June Paik' s Video Synthesizer may actually mark the start of the Computer Aesthetic.
Art of the Electronic Age
Art of the Electronic Age
Nam June Paik and Piotr Kowalski's experimentation with Light Aesthetic are excellent examples of this Kinetic Fine Art transformation from Light Aesthetic to Computer Aesthetic. They are but two of the many great pioneers for the creation of the Computer Aesthetic. The Computer Aesthetic, to put it simply, is the use of some form of mathematical programming, electronics, or a software program (such as an animation or video editing program) to control, or to create the motion art form.
In a nutshell, the theory of Kinetic Fine Art is a simplification of many overlapping events occurring with no special order. The use of evolving technology to explan Kinetic Fine Art gives order and simplification to a complicated series of events. Also, this theory of Kinetic Fine Art attempts to put the focus on the neglected portion of Kinetic Art. This is the kinetic painting, Thomas Wilfred the pioneer of kinetic painting, and Frank Malina the greatest kinetic painter of the Twentieth Century.
© 2003, Moire Tomas
Revised and Published in 2005